Theory of Change

The Theory of Change (ToC) provides the desired outcomes of the Program, expected intermediate results for learners, proposed strategies and the range of options for implementation.  It shows how change may occur in order to address problems, how interventions inter-relate and contribute to achievement of end of program outcomes, given certain assumptions.    

It builds on the problem analysis, the causal model and lessons learnt from past experience of DepEd, DFAT and other development partners. It is based on a thorough and careful analysis of how change can occur in the Philippines context, considering political structures and processes, institutional culture and organisational capability, and evidence.

The Theory of Change underpinning this program is premised on four considerations:

  1. The principle of Inclusive Education which works to ensure that all boys and girls have a right to basic education without regard for their sex, ethnicity, age or physical or mental capacity.
  2. The use of a systems perspective, to understand how people, structures and processes work and influence one another as a whole.
  3. Consideration for DepEd levels of governance; i.e. the school level, Division, Region and Central Office level with their corresponding focus on learners, schools, Divisions and Policy and directions; for planning and implementing interventions.
  4. The establishment of units of analysis and action based on specific grade level segments of Kindergarten to Grade Three (primary level), Grade Four to Six (intermediate grades level), Grade 7 to 10 (secondary level) and Grade 11-12 (Senior High School).  These segments represent specific target groups distinct because of their age-range, psychosocial development and differing educational objectives per group. 

Learning competencies are distinct for each segment. At the Kindergarten to Grade 3 level, it is the mastery of reading and numeracy; for Grade 10, it is measured by readiness for Senior High School; and at Grade 12, it is indicated by competence in selected academic or non-academic tracks. As an end point, more boys and girls will complete their basic education when all boys and girls at the entry level age of each segment are enrolled in school, when fewer boys and girls drop out of school, do not repeat the grade and are retained in the next grade level. This proposition holds true for all the four grade segments of K to Grade 12.